Historical Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore 1912-1947
          One of the largest in the world collections of phonographic records of Jewish musical folklore is stored at the Institute of the Manuscript of Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. The significant size of the collection (1017 waxen phonocylinders), the good state of its safety, and the presence of additional materials in the form of musical and textual decodings to phonorecords - all these factors promote today active development of a major collection. The basic purpose of this research is to make available to scholars - ethnologists, historians, linguistics, folklore experts - a precious folklore heritage contained in this unique collection.

The collection has an enormous historical and culturological value. Its materials feature the painstaking work of several generations of talented researchers-enthusiasts who were involved in a complex study of Jewish musical culture of Ukraine and (to a lesser degree) of Belarus (i.e. of regions with a very considerable Jewish Diaspora with its traditionally strong centers of religious and spiritual life.
Today this collection is a unique monument of culture, representing the living music of the Jewish spiritual heritage in the regions involved. It opens for scholars the prospect of an expansion of information on all genres concerning Jewish musical folklore, including the culture of synagogue singing.

It is possible to highlight two periods of purposeful collective work in the history of Jewish musical folkloristics on the territory of the former Russian Empire (previously the USSR). The first, pre-revolutionary period is connected with investigations of S. An-sky, J. Engel and Z. Kisselhof, in connection with the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society in Petersburg and the Societies of Jewish Music in Moscow and Petersburg (1908-1914). From the "hard times" of the 20s, this period is determined precisely by the shocks of World War I and the revolutionary storms of 1917-1918. The second period is connected with the activity of the outstanding researcher of Jewish folklore, M. Beregovsky, at the Institute (Study) of the Jewish Сulture in Kyiv (1929-1949).

The collection has as a precise structure. Its chronological limits span from 1912 until 1947. The earliest recordings, and incidentally containing a considerable part of these materials (under the inventory: № 126-154) are phonocylinders from the private collection of Julius Engel (1867-1927), an outstanding Jewish composer and musicologist. The writer and researcher of Jewish life, Semen An-sky (1863-1920), photographer Solomon Yudovin (1892-1954) and Julius Engel were participants in the first, trial ethnographic expedition of 1912. The purpose of expedition was to conduct ethnographic research in the so-called "Pale" of the Russian Empire and it was financed by Baron Vladimir Ginzburg, a well-known patron of the arts.

The expedition began on July 1, 1912. According to S.An-sky’s plan, the central point of expedition should be Kyiv, since it was the largest city closest to the area under investigation. During their trip, the participants visited the Kyiv and Volyn provinces. In the phonoarchive some boroughs are designated, exactly those where recordings took place (Skwira, Ruzhin, Pavoloch of Kyiv province), and the villages adjacent to them.

The next stage of research work by the Petersburg Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society was the expedition of 1913. This time An-sky was accompanied in his work by the musician and folklorist, Zinovii Kisselhof (1878-1939), and several students from the Courses for Oriental Studies in Petersburg: Abram Rechtman, Itshak Fikangur (1889-1957) and Shmuel Shrayer (1883-1944).

This expedition was longer than the previous one. We can partially trace their route by examining the phonoarchive inventory book which is stored at the Manuscript Institute. The scholars managed to visit considerably more boroughs of Podolya province (Bogopol, Letichev, Medzhibozh, Proskurov), Kyiv province (Tetiev, Berdichev), and Volyn province (Olika, Kovel, Trisk, Zaslav, Kremenets, Polonne, Dubno, Rivno, Korets, Derazhnja, Lutsk, Sudilkov, Muravitsa, Shepetovka, Slavuta, Annopol, Vladimir-Volynsk).

As the route took the scholars through major Hasidic areas1, in the archive of the collectors we find an enormous quantity of Hasidic melodies. These melodies are accompanied frequently by informative notes: “is written down,” or “is heard from the Bratslav Hasids,” “Ruzhin Hasids,” “Trisker,” “Volyn Hasids2,” “from Abraham Itshok Berdichevsky3,” “from Joseph of Talne4,” “from the Chernobyl rabbi5” ets. With the quantity and variety of these songs, one can consider this collection a kind of encyclopedia of Hasidic singing. Moreover, a characteristic attribute of this part of the collection is the large volume of materials connected with sinagogue singing. Many religious melodies - the fragments of the synagogue liturgy and paraliturgical chants sung on special occasions outside synagogue (for example, on the Sabbath, during such holidays as Pesakh, Sukkot, Rosh Ha-Shana (New Year), Yom-Kipur (Day of Expiation), The Nineth Day of Av (the day of the destruction of the Jerusalem temple) - surprisingly often have the form of completed musical compositions. They were written down by the researchers directly from voices of khasans,6 i.e., Jewish cantors (Itskhok Berman from Olika, Simkha Kobrenik from Zaslav etc.).

To a lesser degree, in this section we find materials composing a collection of household Jewish songs and the songs of craftsmen. The recordings during 1913 create the basis for the phono-collection both in a quantitative and qualitative sense (under the inventory № 252-613). It helps that these records were well kept. Such care in the past has allowed present-day scholars to restore the majority of the recordings, which were collected by the Petersburg Society and stored at the Society’s Ethnographic Museum. The Institute for Information Recording of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine carried out this work of restoration. Among these newly restored items one finds outstanding recordings. Who could imagine that we would hear, for example greeting from the outstanding Jewish writer, Sholom-Alejhem, to the Jewish Museum! We also have the voices of such prominent figures of Jewish culture as Lazar Saminsky7 and Zinovii Kisselhof.

In this volume one also finds records that are not directly connected with materials collected by the Petersburg Ethnographic Society. Nevertheless, these materials are of extraordinary interest (under the inventory № 614-683). The date, "July 1913," signifies recordings which, we must assume, were carried out by Itskhak Lurie8 during his expedition to Palestine in which Lurie recorded the music of Saphardic Jews. This expedition was sponsored by the Society of Jewish Music in Petersburg. In the inventory one finds clear indications about the performers: Shiraz (Persia), Aleppo (Syria), Bagdad (Iraq), Sanaa (Yemen), Abissinia (the Jewish name of Abissinia is Khabash). In one of the reports of the Society of the Jewish Folk Music in Petersburg we find the following record which confirms our hypothesis about the origins of this part of the collection: "Having no appropriate means, the Board of Administration unfortunately, was deprived of opportunities to organize large-size expeditions for collecting and recording Jewish folk songs. Using the stay of Z.Kisselhof in the Kherson province and I.Lurie (student in the Courses for Oriental Studies) in Palestine, the Board of Administration has assigned a necessary sum of money for charges connected with recording, (purchase of a phonograph with cylinders, delivery etc.). Z.Kisselhof has collected about 100 records, and I.Lurie has recorded on cylinders more than 170 Yemen and other Palestinian songs and prayers” 9.

This part of the collection together with those materials from the fund of the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Museum in Petersburg was sent to the Institute of the Jewish Culture in Kyiv in 1930, after the Leningrad Jewish scholarly establishments were closed.

At the end of the 1920s and during the 30s, Kyiv became a major centre for Jewish scholarship in the Soviet Union. The work in Kyiv developed, despite the fact that such work was interrupted by World War I and the revolutions and upheavals of the Soviet period. For example, study of musical folklore continued in the Ethnographic Section of the Institute of the Jewish Culture of AUAS (NAS) in Kyiv (since 1929). Here the independent phonoarchive of Moses Beregovsky (1892-1961), the famous ethnographer and folklorist, was created.. Thanks to his efforts, the work of collection and analysis achieved a high scholarly level. M. Beregovsky and his colleagues visited both such large centres of the Jewish culture as Kyiv and Odessa, and such small cities and “shtetlech” in Volyn, Podolya and Galicia, and such ancient Jewish agricultural settlements in the south of Ukraine: the regions of Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhye, Nikolaev, and the Crimea.

In our analysis of phonorecords, textual and musical decodings, we immediately notice a contrast in the contents and genre structure of those folklore recordings done in the pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods. The religious element emphasized in the early records is poorly presented in the recordings of the Soviet period. The first expedition of M. Beregovsky with a phonograph was held in the summer of 1929 and reflects an original evolution (Bila Tserkva in the Kyiv region and Slavuta of the Khmelnitskiy area).

In Bila Tserkva M. Beregovsky recorded a variety of Jewish folk songs about the home and family life from the local inhabitants with the help of a local teacher and enthusiast, Sh.Kupershmid. These songs give us a good understanding of the genre structure of the Jewish folk songs.

To understand how we have classified the Jewish folk song, let us take a look at our method. In modern Jewish folkloristics folk songs are organized according to the predetermined sequence of events in a person’s life cycle. Dov Noy, one of the most authoritative modern Israeli researchers of folklore, classifies all songs and genres in four basic groups:
1)lebns-tsikl [life cycle]
vig-lider [lullabies]
kheder-lider [heder songs, i.e. songs of the schoolboys in heder; children songs]
libe-lider [love songs]
khasene-lider [wedding songs]
mishpokhe-lider [domestic songs]
toyt-lider [songs about death]
2)yor-tsikl [the annual cycle]:
Shabes un yom-toyvim [Sabbath and holiday songs]
3)natsionale-lider [national folksongs]
4)farsheydene [other songs].
The use of such categories has, perhaps, a single drawback: in the generalized category "farsheydene" are united artificially very different songs which also require subject systematization. In this category of songs one finds:
1)songs of Hasidic assemblies - such as at meals
3)songs of beggars
4)cantonists’, recruits’ and soldiers’ songs
5)songs of the handicraftsmen, workers, revolutionaries, prisoners, emigrants and so on.

One note: the more complete records of 1929 paradoxically reveal a majority of songs about love and family lyrics, and feature fewer songs from handicraftsmen and revolutionary workers, which would show the influence of recent events. On phonocylinders is also present such folklore material that existed traditionally in the so-called underworld, "untervelt" - street beggars, madmen, thieves. The majority of the performers of such songs are young singers, frequently children, and also people of old age - inhabitants of "Georgia", specific area in Bila Tserkva, where Jewish poor people from the "untervelt" settled.

The materials of the expedition in Slavuta in August, 1929 are of a different sort. The majority of these recordings are wonderful Hasidic songs, which even on the background of the rich recordings of the pre-revolutionary period amaze one with the variety of rhythms and the originality of the melodies. Such rare examples of klezmer music10, which illustrate fragments of traditional Jewish wedding ("Kale-bazetsn"/ "Bride`s sitting down"/ and "Dobranich11") offer a great deal of interest. M. Beregovsky included the majority of these recording from this short trip (№ 110-119) in the third volume of his five-volume anthology, "The Jewish Musical Folklore", devoted to Jewish instrumental music.
It is enlightening to note that among the Kyiv records of 1929, there are some very unique examples. In 1929 M.B eregovsky recorded the voices of such outstanding Jewish actors as Solomon Mikhoels, Benjamin Zuskin, and Lela Romm12, and such writers as Iekhieskel Dobrushin13 and Notke Lurie14. He also recorded instrumental pieces performed by the famous violinist and composer, Leo Pulver, head of the Jewish instrumental ensemble. Such phonorecords made in the capital Kiev reflects a high level of technical skill and the enormous talent among the creative intelligentsia at the time.

From 1929-1936 the geographical range of M. Beregovsky expeditions was very limited. Beregovsky only rarely took his phonograph on excursions to the Kyiv region (there were expeditions to Bila Tserkva in July, 1933, in April, 1935, March, 1936). In addition, Beregovsky made trips to Odessa in June, 1930 (№ 160-251) and Uman (Cherkassy region) in August, 1930 (№ 695-705). These excursions were extremely fruitful, offering songs concerning love and family.

Thus, the majority of records during 1931-1935 bear the mark of "Kyiv". But even within the borders of one city Beregovsky managed to record a whole separate expedition. From Jankel Veyzman, cantor, in 1933 Beregovsky recorded religious chants (№ 757-793) on more than thirty seven cylinders. This collection can be considered a small encyclopedia of traditional synagogue singing. In 1835 he also collected phonorecords with specimens of klezmer music from a variety of performers and instruments (clarinet/flute, violin, alto) (№ 831-846).

In 1936 Beregovsky changed his principle concerning expeditions. Planning new territories for ethnographic researches, in January 1936, he took his phonograph to the ancient Jewish agricultural settlements of the Nikolaev region (Kalinindorf, Sterndorf, Lvovo, Bobrovy Kut, Sholom-Alejhem, and Freilebn). The expedition was extremely successful: from the inventory we can see that the inhabitants of Jewish settlements (handicraftsmen, collective farmers, student youth) responded actively to the request of the folklorist and “sang a great deal and with desire” (№ 901-955). The folklore recordings of this period have their specificity: alongside current lyrical songs, performers sang “mass” Soviet Jewish folksongs, the majority of which are “chastooshkas” (humorous songs), and songs about collective farms and the Soviet Army. To a lesser degree one finds here music without lyrics (purely instrumental music).

The strong influence that Soviet ideology had on Jewish folk music reflects the efforts to inculcate the Jewish agricultural settlements with the latest slogans. In expeditions during June, 1937 to the Zaporozhye region (Novozlatopol, Novodarovka) / № 979-992 / and the Crimea / № 993-998/, ideology is less noticeable. Nevertheless, we should note that the recordings from the old Jewish agricultural settlements give a great deal of information on neglected folklore genres, such as the Jewish folk theatrical performances (purimshpils16). According to Beregovsky, the form of the purimshpils have changed least of all in those variants registered in the Jewish settlements. The example of "Akhashverosh-shpil", a varient recorded from Aron Lifshits in the settlement of Novozlatopol (№ 1004-1008) is classic in this regard. M.Beregovsky recorded more developed variants during expeditions to the Nikolaev region in November, 1938. In the Kalinindorf District he also registered some fragments from the plays "Akhashverosh-shpil" and "Joseph-shpil" (№ 1037-1045).

From the point of view purely of information gathering, the expeditions of 1937-1940 were very fruitful. In May 1939 in the settlement of Ingulets in the Dnepropetrovsk region Beregovsky managed to inscribe the most complete variant of the play "Akhashverosh-shpil" that we have to date (№ 1050-1062). In this regard, we should not underemphasize the cultural value of these phonorecords. Earlier there was no attempt to reproduce the purimshpil as complete musical performance. Beregovsky’s recordings can serve not only as irreplaceable sources for the research of purimshpils, but also for the study of the principles of musical recitation in the folk plays. The materials of these expeditions awaken a wide circle of musicological problems, and serve as the basis for the brilliant discussions in the historical-theoretical part of the fifth volume of Beregovsky’s anthology "The Jewish Musical Folklore".

The search for new areas of research inspired Beregovsky to carry out an expedition in Belarus (Bobruisk, Glusk, Streshin) in June, 1939. Except for those songs without words and domestic folksongs, Beregovsky recorded from Borukh Goldin and Isaak Slavin in Streshnin a variant of the play, "Akeidas Itskhok" ("Immolation of Isaak") / № 1110-1115/. In 1940, he opened up still another direction for research - the western regions of Ukraine (Kolomya and Lvov). In August - September, 1939, he worked there on a study of the folklore of Galitsia Jews. Among the records of this period, one notes the fragments of the Jewish wedding in Galitsia - topical songs of the badkhon17 in connection with the rite of “sitting-down” the bride ("kale bazetsn") and "singing of the groom" ("khosn-bazingen"). In the folklorist`s archive get also find two purimshpils from Kolomya: "Akhashverosh-shpil" (№ 1229-1233), written down from Khaim Leib Haiferman, a badkhon and drummer of the klezmer capella, and "Joseph-shpil" which has been written down from Khaim Leibovich, a sexton in a synagogue.

Phonorecords from Western Ukraine are the last in the pre-war archive of the Institute of the Jewish culture. But in the same 1940 the phonoarchive of the Institute was replenished once again considerably with phonocylinders from the private collection of Z. Kisselhof - An-skys’ colleague on the expeditions of the Petersburg Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society (№ 1119-1213). This collection, together with other materials from Kisselhof’s personal archive, were transferred as a gift to the Institute by Kisselhof’s daughter. Kisselhof’s collection spans the years 1922-1928. These years coincide exactly with the period when activity in folklore researches slowed. Still, Beregovsky’s scholarship achievements were still to come. Therefore, Kisselhof’s collection fills in a gap of more than ten years in technology and use of the phonoarchive, and reflects more than anything else the work of a lonely enthusiast. The majority of his recordings were made in Petrograd-Leningrad, the city in which Kisselhof lived. In this collection we also find recordings from Belarus (Mogilyov, Babinovichi, and Kalinkovichi) and recordings of the singer Sara Fibikh18, the composer M. Gnesin19, Z. Kisselhof himself, and actors of the Jewish theatre "Gabima". In Kalinkovichi Kisselhof inscribed a large variant of the "Akhashverosh-shpil" from Isaak Gutman, a former puremshpiler (№ 1200-1212).

World War II interrupted for four years the work of recording. Only in 1944, after the employees of the Institute of Jewish Culture returned from Ufa20, did the expedition work revive. Although none are entirely trustworthy, we have several versions of the fate of the phonoarchive in the period of occupation. Edda Beregovsky, the daughter of folklorist, in an introductory paper to the collection of materials "Harps on Willows" writes that the phonographic collection of a folklore department was removed to Germany during occupation: "The Fascists have shot in Babiy Yar all of Kyiv’s Jews, but carefully made inventory and, while retreating, evacuated the cylinders with the recordings of Jewish folk music"21. This collection really was moved during evacuation; marks made in the inventory book of the phonoarchive during the post-war verification of soundtracks prove this. In the inventory there is a record of numbers concerning absent phonocylinders: "tsebrokhn beveys evakuatsie" ("was broken during evacuation "). During the Soviet offensive, writes E. Beregovskaya, the phonocollection was found in Germany and was returned to its lawful owner.

It is certain that Beregovskaya’s statements have a documentary bases. After the war the Department of Folklore of the Institute of Jewish Culture developed links with the Museum of Literature of the Estonian SSR and the Vilnius Jewish Museum. In particular, the correspondence with the Vilnius museum is interesting since it sheds light on some details concerning the pre-war archives of YIVO22 and the Instittue of Jewish Culture. The director of the Vilnius Museum, I. Gutkovich, wrote to M.Beregovsky bitterly about the "archival handfuls" of the former collection that “survived”, recounting the re-registration of materials, the current work of organizing book funds, and details about the of period of reconstruction. Lamenting on the fate of the lost materials of YIVO, he writes: "You were lucky, you received back part of your pre-war collections. Vilno had no such good fortune"24.

In post-war years there were few opportunities to record Jewish folklore. The reason consisted in the lack of normal recording equipment and in the lack of pure waxen cylinders. The total number of post-war cylinders was 27. The expeditions of the post-war years had the main objective to do research in the regions of the Jewish ghettos of Transnistria for study specifically of the folklore of the regions of Ukraine formerly occupied by Germans and Romanians.

The first expedition for collecting folklore material was carried out in November - December, 1944 by M. Beregovsky and M. Maydansky, an employee of Linguistics Department at the Institute. During the expedition, Beregovsky not only collected folklore, but also the stories of former prisoners. Information about these individuals is reflected in the inventory book of the archive of the Institute of Jewish Culture for the recording of verbal folklore.
The next stage of scholarship occurred in 1945. In the preparations for an expedition, a draft of which remains, the scholars developed a thematic plan, envisioning which material to collect to supplement the “Chernovtsy” collection and subsequent selection of songs and fairytales (stories) about World War II. In item № 2 of the expedition we find a discussion of personal: "Proceeding with a purpose and taking into account that the previous expedition in Chernovtsy, which for objective reasons had no effect, as well as the fact that this expedition is the only one [to take place] in 1945, it is necessary to carry it out with maximal output. It’s staff should be the most skilled employees: M. Beregovsky - leader of the expedition, R[uvim] Lerner and Kch[inya] Shargorodskya."25 In August - September, 1945 36 songs were recorded (phonocylinders № 1250-1265). The researchers visited the Vinnitsa region (Bershad, Bratslav, Tulchin, and Zhabokrich).

In 1946 Ida Shaykis, an employee of the Institute of Jewish Culture and an assistant of M.Beregovsky, made a short expedition in Korostyshev in the Zhitomir region. The phonorecords from Korostyshev are as a matter of fact the final contribution to the formation of the phonoarchive of the Institute of the Jewish Culture (№ 1270-1273). Not only were the songs of wartime lodged in the expedition’s archive, its participants also managed to collect a variaty of the legends of the Bratslav Hasids, as well as stories about tsadiks - the Baalshemtov, Ruzhin, and the Berdichev tsadiks. Religious songs were also collected. The last record in the inventory book of the phonoarchive (under № 1274) was made in March, 1947, in Kyiv.

The formation of a huge phonoarchive of the Jewish folklore must been seen as a tremendous monument of Jewish and world Culture. But in the following years, instead of deserved recognition, the archive fell into forced oblivion. In January 1949, the Institute of Jewish Culture was liquidated and almost all its employees were arrested, including Beregovsky. The entire phonoarchive was confiscated. Only now, a half-century later, this rich heritage of original Jewish culture is returning to life.

The revival of these records in their natural, living sound, i.e., the "re-reading" of phonocylinders (and many of them - read for the first time) was a success thanks to the employees of the Institute for Information Recording of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. While reproducing the information on the phonocylinders, the experts of the institute used a new “optical method of sound reproduction from Edison cylinders".  The first practical results of this joint project was the edition in 1997 of the compact disk, "Treasures of Jewish Culture in Ukraine". The next stage of a joint effort is the edition of a CD dedicated to the folkloristic activity of J. Engel.


1 Hasidism - (from Hebrew: "Hasidut" - literally "the doctrine of piety") religious-mystical movement in Judaism, which arose in Southern Russia at the end of the 30s of the 18th century and spread in Podolya, Volyn, and Galitsiya in the 2nd half of the 18th-19th centuries.
2 Bratslav, Ruzhin, Trisker Hasids - supporters of various currents in Hasidism, which were spread in Volyn and Podolya.
3Abraham Itshok Berdichevsky is a descendant of Leyvi Itshok Berdichevsky
Leyvi Itshok Berdichevsky (1740-1810) is a Hasidic tsadik and rabbi, one of the most outstanding representatives of Hasidism of the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. The leader of the Volyn Hasids, he held the post of rabbi in Berdichev.
4 Joseph from Talne (Joseph Volinets, 1740-1810) - "court" singer for tsadiks in the Talne of Kyiv region. One of the most known authors of Hasidic melodies.
5 Tchernobyl rabbi - the head of so-called Tchernobyl movement in Hasidism (from the name of the borough Tchernobyl in the Kyiv region, from where the famous dynasty of tsadiks comes).
6 Khazan (from Hebrew: "khazo" - to see, contemplate) - “cantor” in the modern meaning of the word.
7 Saminsky Lazar (1882-1959) - known composer and researcher of the history of the Jewish music; one of the founders of the Society of the Jewish Folk Music in Petersburg.
8 Lurie Itskhak (1875-1930ies) - student in the Courses for Oriental Studies, one of the founders of the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society, its archivist since 1917.
9 Report of the Society of the Jewish Folk Music for 1913 with a sketch of the Soviety’s activity during its first five years (1909 - 1913) - Petrograd, 1914. - p. 14.
10 Klezmer music - traditional repertoir of klezmers.
Klezmers (from Hebrew: “kley-zemer” - “musical instruments”) - Jewish folk musicians, which played on weddings, fairs, outdoor fetes.
11 Dobranich - traditional play for hearing from repertoir of the Jewish folk musicians - klezmers; it is played when the guests come back from wedding home.
12 Mikhoels Solomon (1890-1948), Zuskin Benjamin (1899-1952), Romm Lela - leading actors of the Moscow Jewish Chamber Theatre.
13 Dobrushin Iekhezkel (1883-1953) - a known Jewish playwright, theater scholar and teacher. He wrote in Yiddish.
14 Lurie Noakh (1885-1960) - a known Jewish writer. He wrote in Yiddish.
15 Pulver Leo (1883-1970) - Jewish composer, violinist. The son of a klezmer, he took part in performances of klezmers choirs. He wrote music for performances of the Moscow Jewish Chamber Theatre.
16 Purimshpil - traditional Jewish folk performance, which takes place once a year, in spring, on the holiday Purim. Purim (from Hebrew: “pur” (“puru”) - fate) - the holiday on honour of wonderful liberation of the Persia Jews from destruction, which was prepared for them by the emperor dignitary Gaman (the 5th century AC).
17 Badkhon (from Hebrew: “bedakh” - to make laugh) - professional jester who entertains the guests on the Jewish wedding by witty jokes and songs.
18 Fibikh Sara - a known performer of the Jewish folksongs. She collected herself and wrote down the Jewish domestic folklore.
19 Gnesin Mikhail (1883-1957) - a known composer and teacher; the grandson of a known badkhon from Vilna (nowadays - Vilnius) Shaike Faifer. One of the founders of a Society of Jewish Folk Music in Petersburg.
20 In Ufa, capital of the autunomous republic of the RSFSR Bashkiria, were evacuated during the war the establishments of the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR.
21 Harps on Willows: Calling and Destiny of Moses Beregovsky/ Complied by E.Beregovskaya, the edition is prepared by A.Eppel - Мoscow: Jerusalem: Gesharim, 1994. - p. 12.
22 YIVO - abbreviation of research institute "Idishe Visnshaftlekhe Organizatsie" (in translation from Yiddish - "The Jewish Scientific Organization"), which was engaged in development of various questions of Jewish literature, language, and history.
23 After the end of the Second World War, the Vilno collections of YIVO were concentrated in USA in the again created institute YIVO in New York.
24 The Vilnius Jewish Museum - to M. Beregovsky. A letter from 25.02.1947 IM VNLU, F.190, № 316, P.11.
25 IM VNLU, F. 190, No. 312, p. 2.